The complexity of developing a new behavior by clinical populations requires a conceptual framework to identify the behavioral determinants. Two relevant theories, the Transtheoretical Model of change (TTM) and COM-B were tested to identify the readiness of performing Self-administered Massage (SAM) as self management and essential components of performing the behavior, to gain insight for designing effective SAM programs.
Participants (n = 430) were individuals who self-reported being diagnosed with knee OA, or chronic knee pain. Participants completed an online survey that assessed TTM stages, COM-B (capacity, opportunity, and motivation) determinants, along with SAM behavior.
The TTM MANCOVA revealed participants who had Knee-OA scored higher on action stage compared to chronic pain, and those who experienced greater pain scored higher in the contemplation and action phases of performing SAM compared to those with milder pain. The COM-B MANCOVA found participants with knee-OA scored higher in opportunity, and those with greater pain scored higher in motivation
to perform SAM. The knee condition and pain classification interaction found those with knee-OA and higher pain were in the contemplation and action phases. The structural equation model found SAM behavior to be predicted by capacity and motivation, but not opportunity, motivation, but not opportunity.
The findings provide formative notes for designing SAM interventions for individuals affected with knee pain. Specifically, clinicians and researchers can expect patients with knee-OA, or with higher knee pain to be ready (action stage) or towards being ready (contemplation stage) to adopt SAM.
Department of Health Sciences, School of Health and Human Sciences, Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Australian Research Centre in Complementary and
Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia